Helium Diffusion as a Creationist Clock By Michael Ward Scientists use certain elements present in a certain abundance to calculate an approximate age for rocks. One of the decay ratios used is Uranium decaying through a series of alpha and beta decays to Lead.
The number in superscript preceding the element name indicates the atomic mass, the sum of its protons and neutrons. Alpha decay releases a Helium nucleus two protons and two neutrons from the helium dating definition atom to create two atoms: the released Helium and a daughter product that has an atomic number two less than the original and an atomic mass four less than the original.
Using the amount of the remaining Uranium, the amount of Lead that has built up, and the original amount of Lead which is not created by any known decay process, scientists can calculate an approximate age based on the decay rate of Uranium and the ratios of Uranium to Lead and Lead to Lead.
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Some creationists claim that there is too much helium in Earth's crust for the earth to be any more than two million years old Sarfati, If Earth has existed for billions of years, there should be helium dating definition helium left in deeper rocks as a result of radioactive alpha decay. They claim that if God had created the Earth with initial Helium in the atmosphere, the maximum age would be even lower than two million-perhaps even as little as 6, years Humphreys et.
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The RATE Radioisotopes and the Age of The Earth project, cosponsored by the Institute for Creation Research, the Creation Research Society, and Answers in Genesis, claims that the amount of helium present in minerals at different depths of the earth's crust is too high to support day-age or evolutionist theories about an old Earth.
They sent rock samples to a lab for helium dating definition diffusion tests, and their results were that the rock samples have too little resistance to the diffusion of Helium through the rock for the age to be greater than at most two million years.
The conclusion reached by the RATE project as to the reason for the increased amount of Helium is that sometime in the past few thousand years there was a period of increased radioactivity DeYoung, A fundamental problem with this hypothesis, however, is that the amount of energy released during the accelerated decay proposed by RATE would potentially be enough to evaporate the oceans and melt the Earth's crust Ross, The samples RATE tested helium dating definition from a borehole sample retrieved in with no statement made as to the storage or collection conditions of the samples.
Was the rock sample kept at the same temperature and pressure during storage as that it would have experienced had it remained in the ground?
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Was there any chance of helium from any other sources contaminating the sample? In order to fully quantify the rock samples they obtained, the above two questions helium dating definition to be thoroughly answered to secure the quality of the rock being sampled. However, neither of these questions were answered, and the wording of the paragraph indicates that the samples that were sent to the laboratory were excavated thirty years previous and not fresh.
Even with an obvious lack of sample documentation there is other substantial criticism of the accuracy of the findings of the RATE project. One major critique was written by Kevin Henke, Ph.
His criticisms range from using faulty helium dating definition deviation for error factors to incorrectly identifying rock samples that could helium dating definition to very serious errors in measurements to using equations that yield inconsistent dates as examples of how traditional radioisotope dating is flawed.
There are also questions about the purity of some of the rock samples that were claimed to be of high purity: in an appendix to the final report, the lead scientist expressed some confusion as to the behavior of a rock sample which can only be explained as impurities in the sample Henke, Another major problem is that the the diffusion measurements were taken while the samples were in a vacuum.
Gases readily try to expand and fill all available space, and a vacuum acts just as.
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